Close

Buccal Cancer

Causes of Buccal Cancer

As with most cancers, doctors can’t tell you with certainty what causes buccal cancer. It’s a combination of genetic predisposition and factors in your environment.

  • Tobacco: This is by far the most common factor contributing to buccal cancer. Smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes and using chewing tobacco greatly increase your chance of getting any oral cancer.
  • Alcohol: Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol is also strongly associated with getting oral squamous cell cancers. Moreover, if you both smoke and drink heavily, the risk more than doubles.
  • Betel nut: This is the seed of the areca tree. It is often chewed by people from Southeast Asia and is known to cause oral cancer.

Other factors that can increase your chance of getting oral cancer include:

  • Marijuana
  • Bad dental hygiene
  • Viruses
  • Food and nutrition
  • Genetic factors
References

1 Petersen PE, Oral cancer prevention and control – The approach of the World Health Organization, Oral Oncol. 2008.

2 Ko YC, Huang YL, Lee CH, Chen MJ, Lin LM, Tsai CC. Betel quid chewing, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption related to oral cancer in Taiwan. Journal of oral pathology & medicine: official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology. Nov 1995;24(10):450-453.

3 Shugars DC, Patton LL. Detecting, diagnosing, and preventing oral cancer. The Nurse Practitioner. Jun 1997;22(6):105,109-110,113-105 passim.

4 Silverman Jr. S. Early diagnosis of oral cancer. Cancer. Oct 15 1988;62(8 Suppl):1796-1799.

5 Scully C, Porter S. ABC of oral health. Oral cancer. BMJ. Jul 8 2000;321(7253):97-100.

6 Neville BW, Day TA. Oral cancer and precancerous lesions. CA: A cancer journal for clinicians. Jul-Aug 2002;52(4):195-215.

7 Spiro RH, Thaler HT, Hicks WF, Kher UA, Huvos AH, Strong EW. The importance of clinical staging of minor salivary gland carcinoma. Am J Surg. 1991 Oct;162(4):330-6.

8 Morton DL, Wen DR, Foshag LJ, Essner R, Cochran A. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping and selective cervical lymphadenectomy for early-stage melanomas of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol. 1993;11:1751-6.

9 Civantos FJ, Zitsch RP, Schuller DE, Agrawal A, Smith RB, Nason R, Petruzelli G, Gourin CG, Wong RJ, Ferris RL, El Naggar A, Ridge JA, Paniello RC, Owzar K, McCall L, Chepeha DB, Yarbrough WG, Myers JN. Sentinel lymph node biopsy accurately stages the regional lymph nodes for T1-T2 oral squamous cell carcinomas: results of a prospective multi-institutional trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 10;28(8):1395-400.

10 Koch WM, Choti MA, Civelek AC, Eisele DW, Saunders JR. Gamma probe-directed biopsy of the sentinel node in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998;124:455-9.

11 Shoaib T, Soutar DS, MacDonald DG, Camilleri IG, Dunaway DJ, Gray HW, McCurrach GM, Bessent RG, MacLeod TIF, Robertson AG. 2001. The accuracy of head and neck carcinoma sentinel lymph node biopsy in the clinically N0 neck. Cancer. 91:2077-2083.

12 Kademani D. Oral cancer. Mayo Clinic proceedings. Mayo Clinic. Jul 2007;82(7):878-887.

13 Funk GF, Karnell LH, Robinson RA, Zhen WK, Trask DK, Hoffman HT. Presentation, treatment, and outcome of oral cavity cancer: a National Cancer Data Base report. Head Neck. 2002 Feb;24(2):165-80.

14 Kraus FT, Perezmesa C. Verrucous carcinoma. Clinical and pathologic study of 105 cases involving oral cavity, larynx and genitalia. Cancer. Jan 1966;19(1):26-38.

15 Listl S, Jansen L, Stenzinger A, Freier K, Emrich K, et al. Survival of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer in Germany. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(1):e53415.

16 Anneroth G, Batsakis J, Luna M. Review of the literature and a recommended system of malignancy grading in oral squamous cell carcinomas. Scand J Dent Res. 1987;95;229-249.

17 Edge SB, et al. The AJCC Cancer Staging Manual – Seventh Edition. American Joint Committee on Cancer 2010.

18 Jan JC, Hsu WH, Liu SA, Wong YK, Poon CK, Jiang RS, Jan JS, Chen IF. Prognostic factors in patients with buccal squamous cell carcinoma: 10-year experience. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011 Feb;69(2):396-404.

19 Pradhan SA, Rajpal RM. Marginal mandibulectomy in the management of squamous cancer of the oral cavity. Indian J Cancer. 1987;24;167-171.

20 Pentenero M, Gandolfo S, Carrozzo M. Importance of tumor thickness and depth of invasion in nodal involvement and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the literature. Head Neck. 2005 Dec;27(12):1080-91.

21 Maddox WA, Urist MM. Histopathological prognostic factors of certain primary oral cavity cancers. 1990 Dec;4(12):39-42; discussion 42, 45-6.

22 Urist MM, O'Brien CJ, Soong SJ, Visscher DW, Maddox WA. Squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa: analysis of prognostic factors. Am J Surg. 1987 Oct;154(4):411-4.

23 Adelstein, D. J., et al. (2012). “Transoral resection of pharyngeal cancer: summary of a National Cancer Institute Head and Neck Cancer Steering Committee Clinical Trials Planning Meeting, November 6-7, 2011, Arlington, Virginia.” Head Neck 34(12): 1681-1703.

24 Byers, R. M. (1991). “Neck dissection: concepts, controversies, and technique.” Semin Surg Oncol 7(1): 9-13.

25 Hinni, M. L., et al. (2013). “Margin mapping in transoral surgery for head and neck cancer.” Laryngoscope 123(5): 1190-1198.

26 Cracchiolo, J. R., et al. (2016). “Increase in primary surgical treatment of T1 and T2 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and rates of adverse pathologic features: National Cancer Data Base.” Cancer 122(10): 1523-1532.

27 Denis, F., et al. (2004). “Final results of the 94-01 French Head and Neck Oncology and Radiotherapy Group randomized trial comparing radiotherapy alone with concomitant radiochemotherapy in advanced-stage oropharynx carcinoma.” J Clin Oncol 22(1): 69-76.

28 Zumsteg, Z. S., et al. (2017). “Impact of concomitant chemoradiation on survival for patients with T1-2N1 head and neck cancer.” Cancer 123(9): 1555-1565.

29 Sher, D. J., et al. (2017). “Radiation therapy for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: Executive summary of an ASTRO Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline.” Pract Radiat Oncol 7(4): 246-253.

30 Haughey, B. H., et al. (2011). “Transoral laser microsurgery as primary treatment for advanced-stage oropharyngeal cancer: a United States multicenter study.” Head Neck 33(12): 1683-1694.

Important: Privacy Update

Your privacy and the protection of your personal information is important to the THANC (Thyroid, Head and Neck Cancer) Foundation and the Head & Neck Cancer Guide (HNCG). For this reason, we have updated our privacy policy to align with the GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation).

Please click below to see an updated privacy policy that describes how we collect and use your personal information and respect your privacy.

Privacy Policy