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Nasal Cancer

Understanding the Anatomy

The inside of the nose is called the nasal cavity. It is actually bigger than many people think, and it has many structures inside it. At the most basic level, there is a left and right nasal cavity. The sides are separated by the nasal septum. The nasal cavity on each side opens into the nasopharynx through the choana.

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44-1 Nasal Anatomy

The parts (or subsites) of the nasal cavity include:

  • Vestibule: This is basically the inner nostril. More specifically, it starts on the skin of the nostril at the very edge and stops where the skin transitions into the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity.
  • Septum: This is the wall in the middle of the nose that separates the left nasal cavity from the right nasal cavity. It is made up of cartilage and bone. At the top, it joins up with the bones of the base of skull.
  • Floor: This is what it sounds like—the bottom part of the nasal cavity all the way back to the nasopharynx.
  • Lateral wall: This is the side wall of the nasal cavity. It has structures on the side called turbinates (also called conchae). There are inferior (lower), middle and superior (upper) turbinates. Sometimes there is a fourth, even higher, turbinate, which is called the supreme turbinate. The lateral wall is where the sinuses and tear duct open into the nasal cavity.
References

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13 Referenced with permission from The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) for Head and Neck Cancers V.2.2016. © National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc 2016. All rights reserved. Accessed December 6, 2016. To view the most recent and complete version of the guideline, go online to www.NCCN.org.

14 Piccirillo JF, Costas I, Reichman ME. Chapter 2: Cancers of the Head and Neck. Ries LAG, Young JL, Keel GE, Eisner MP, Lin YD, Horner M-J (editors). SEER Survival Monograph: Cancer Survival Among Adults: U.S. SEER Program, 1988-2001, Patient and Tumor Characteristics. National Cancer Institute, SEER Program, NIH Pub. No. 07-6215, Bethesda, MD, 2007.

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16 Agrawal S, Kane JM, Guadagnolo BA, Kraybill WG, Ballo MT. The benefits of adjuvant radiation therapy after therapeutic lymphadenectomy for clinically advanced, high-risk, lymph node-metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 2009;115(24):5836-5844. doi:10.1002/cncr.24627

17 Amin M, Edge S, Greene F, et al. (2017). AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 8th ed. New York: Springer.

18 Bachar G, Loh KS, O’Sullivan B, et al. Mucosal melanomas of the head and neck: experience of the Princess Margaret Hospital. Head Neck. 2008;30(10):1325-1331. doi:10.1002/hed.20878

19 Ballo MT, Bonnen MD, Garden AS, et al. Adjuvant irradiation for cervical lymph node metastases from melanoma. Cancer. 2003;97(7):1789-1796. doi:10.1002/cncr.11243

20 Burmeister BH, Henderson MA, Ainslie J, et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy versus observation alone for patients at risk of lymph-node field relapse after therapeutic lymphadenectomy for melanoma: a randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(6):589-597. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70138-9

21 Chang AE, Karnell LH, Menck HR. The National Cancer Data Base report on cutaneous and noncutaneous melanoma: a summary of 84,836 cases from the past decade. The American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer and the American Cancer Society. Cancer. 1998;83(8):1664-1678. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9781962.

22 Chen AM, Daly ME, Bucci MK, et al. Carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity treated with radiotherapy at a single institution over five decades: are we making improvement? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;69(1):141-147. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.02.031

23 Douglas CM, Malik T, Swindell R, Lorrigan P, Slevin NJ, Homer JJ. Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck: radiotherapy or surgery? J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;39(4):385-392. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20643003.

24 Meleti M, Leemans CR, de Bree R, Vescovi P, Sesenna E, van der Waal I. Head and neck mucosal melanoma: experience with 42 patients, with emphasis on the role of postoperative radiotherapy. Head Neck. 2008;30(12):1543-1551. doi:10.1002/hed.20901

25 Patel SG, Prasad ML, Escrig M, et al. Primary mucosal malignant melanoma of the head and neck. Head Neck. 2002;24(3):247-257. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11891956.

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28 Homer, J., F.R.C.S., Jones, N., F.R.C.S., & Bradley, P., F.R.C.S. (1997). The role of endoscopy in the management of nasal neoplasia. American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy, 11(1), 41-48. doi:10.2500/105065897781446757

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