Close

Cervical Esophageal Cancer

The cervical esophagus is the top part of the feeding tube (esophagus) that extends from the bottom of the throat (hypopharynx) to the thoracic esophagus, which travels through the chest and ends in the stomach. Because it starts in the neck, cervical esophageal cancer will be grouped with throat cancers by many doctors.

Esophageal cancer is typically treated by a team that might be a little different than most other head and neck cancer teams. The esophagus is part of the gastrointestinal tract (food tract), and the esophagus starts in the neck but travels through the chest into the abdomen. Also, staging esophageal cancer requires special tests, such as endoscopic ultrasound, that a head and neck surgeon typically does not perform. Because of this, your head and neck surgeon will call upon the expertise of either a gastroenterologist or a thoracic surgeon. This is in addition to a team of radiation oncologists and medical oncologists.

In the U.S., most esophageal cancers are adenocarcinomas and are located in the lower part of the esophagus. Here we are focusing on cervical (or upper) esophagus cancers. These are almost always squamous cell carcinomas, though there have been reports of adenocarcinoma in the cervical esophagus as well.1 Krause CJ, Carey TE, Ott RW, Hurbis C, McClatchey KD, Regezi JA. Human squamous cell carcinoma. Establishment and characterization of new permanent cell lines. Arch Otolaryngol. Nov 1981;107(11):703-710.

References

1 Krause CJ, Carey TE, Ott RW, Hurbis C, McClatchey KD, Regezi JA. Human squamous cell carcinoma. Establishment and characterization of new permanent cell lines. Arch Otolaryngol. Nov 1981;107(11):703-710.

2 Moore C. Smoking and cancer of the mouth, pharynx, and larynx. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. Jan 25 1965;191(4):283-286.

3 Pelucchi C, Gallus S, Garavello W, Bosetti C, La Vecchia C. Cancer risk associated with alcohol and tobacco use: focus on upper aero-digestive tract and liver. Alcohol research & health: the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2006;29(3):193-198.

4 Little MP. Cancer after exposure to radiation in the course of treatment for benign and malignant disease. The lancet oncology. Apr 2001;2(4):212-220.

5 Referenced with permission from The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) for Esophageal and Esophagogastric Junction Cancers V.2.2016. ©National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc 2016. All rights reserved. Accessed December 7, 2016. To view the most recent and complete version of the guideline, go online to www.nccn.org.

6 Modlin IM, Shapiro MD, Kidd M. An analysis of rare carcinoid tumors: clarifying these clinical conundrums. World J Surg. 2005 Jan;29(1):92-101.

7 Vinik, A. I., Thompson, N., Eckhauser, F., & Moattari, A. R. (1989). Clinical features of carcinoid syndrome and the use of somatostatin analogue in its management. Acta Oncologica, 28(3), 389-402.

8 Mariette C, Balon J-M, Piessen G, Fabre S, Van Seuningen I, Triboulet J-P. Pattern of recurrence following complete resection of esophageal carcinoma and factors predictive of recurrent disease. Cancer. 2003;97:1616-1623.

9 Key C and Meisner ALW. Chapter 3: Cancer of the Esophagus, Stomach, and Small Intestine. Ries LAG, Young JL, Keel GE, Eisner MP, Lin YD, Horner M-J (editors). SEER Survival Monograph: Cancer Survival Among Adults: U.S. SEER Program, 1988-2001, Patient and Tumor Characteristics. National Cancer Institute, SEER Program, NIH Pub. No. 07-6215, Bethesda, MD, 2007.