Close

Orbital Tumors

Determining the Grade of the Tumor

Pathologists will typically report on the grade of the tumor. This is a qualitative interpretation by the pathologist of how much the cancerous cells resemble normal tissue from that site. There are a number of different grading systems that might be used. The most common is as follows:

  • GX: Grade cannot be assessed
  • G1: Well differentiated
  • G2: Moderately differentiated
  • G3: Poorly differentiated
  • G4: Undifferentiated

Differentiation refers to how closely the cells taken from a tumor or lesion resemble normal cells from the healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. “Well differentiated” means that the cells look similar to normal cells in that area. “Undifferentiated” means the cells look nothing like normal cells in that area.

While it is important to report the tumor’s grade, few doctors use this information to make decisions regarding treatment or prognosis for this particular cancer type.

References

1 Riedel KG, Markl A, Hasenfratz G, Kampik A, Stefani FH, Lund OE. Epithelial tumors of the lacrimal gland: clinico-pathologic correlation and management. Neurosurg Rev. 1990;13(4):289-98.

2 Tijl JW, Koornneef L. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in orbital tumours. Br J Ophthalmol.1991 August;75(8):491-492.

3 Spiro RH, Thaler HT, Hicks WF, Kher UA, Huvos AH, Strong EW. The importance of clinical staging of minor salivary gland carcinoma. Am J Surg. 1991 Oct;162(4):330-6.

4 Smitt, MC, Donaldson SS. Radiotherapy is successful treatment for orbital lymphoma. International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics. 1993;26(1):59-66.

5 Bolek TW, Moyses HM, Marcus Jr RB, Gorden III L, Maiese RL, Almasri NM, Mendenhall NP. Radiotherapy in the management of orbital lymphoma. International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics. Volume 44, Issue 1, 1 April 1999;31-36.

6 Goldberg RA, Rootman J. Clinical characteristics of metastatic orbital tumors. Ophthalmology. 1990 May;97(5):620-4.

7 Skinner HD, Garden AS, Rosenthal DI, Ang KK, Morrison WH, Esmaeli B, Pinnix CC, Frank SJ. Outcomes of Malignant Tumors of the Lacrimal Apparatus: The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Experience. Cancer. 2011;117(12):2801-2810.

8 Wright J, Rose G, Garner A. Primary malignant neoplasms of the lacrimal gland. Br J Ophthalmology. 1992;76:401-407.

9 Kim M, Park K, Kim JH, Kim Y, Lee J. Gamma knife radiosurgery for orbital tumors. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110:1003-1007.

10 Douglas JG, Laramore GE, Austin-Seymour M, et al. Treatment of locally advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck with neutron radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000;46:551-557.

11 Finger PT. Radiation Therapy for Orbital Tumors: Concepts, Current Use, and Ophthalmic Radiation Side Effects, Survey of Ophthalmology. Volume 54, Issue 5, September–October 2009;545-568.

12 Meel R, Pushker N, Bakhshi S. Adjuvant chemotherapy in lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009;53:1163-1164.

13 Meldrum ML, Tse DT, Benedetto P. Neoadjuvant intracarotid chemotherapy for treatment of advanced adenocystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998;116:315-321.

14 Oberlin O, Rey A, Anderson J, Carli M, Raney RB, Treuner J, Stevens, MC. Treatment of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma: survival and late effects of treatment—results of an international workshop. Journal of clinical oncology. 2001;19(1),197-204.