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Metastatic Lymph Nodes

Determining the Type of Metastatic Lymph Nodes

Only after a pathologist analyzes some cells or actual pieces of tissue from the lesion will your doctor be able to tell you if you have cancer. Cancer can spread to the lymph nodes of your neck from primary tumors in the head and neck or from other sites in your body.

  • Metastatic lymph nodes: Spread to neck lymph nodes from the head and neck region
    • Cancer from the mouth, throat, nose, face or scalp
    • Cancers from the skin, thyroid or salivary glands
    • Cancers from an unknown primary source
  • Distant metastatic cancer: Cancers spread to neck lymph nodes from a region below the collarbones such as the lungs, stomach, kidney, testicles or just about anywhere else.
References

1 Patterns of cervical lymph node metastasis from squamous carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. Patterns of cervical lymph node metastasis from squamous carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. The American Journal of Surgery. 1990;160(4):405-409.

2 Patterns of Cervical Node Metastases From Squamous Carcinoma of the Larynx. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1990;116(4):432-435.

3 Zhang MQ, El-Mofty SK, Dávila RM. Detection of human papillomavirus-related squamous cell carcinoma cytologically and by in situ hybridization in fine-needle aspiration biopsies of cervical metastasis: a tool for identifying the site of an occult head and neck primary. Cancer. 2008;114(2):118-23.

4 Morton DL, Wen DR, Foshag LJ, Essner R, Cochran A. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping and selective cervical lymphadenectomy for early-stage melanomas of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol. 1993;11:1751-1756.

5 Civantos FJ, Zitsch RP, Schuller DE, Agrawal A, Smith RB, Nason R, Petruzelli G, Gourin CG, Wong RJ, Ferris RL, El Naggar A, Ridge JA, Paniello RC, Owzar K, McCall L, Chepeha DB, Yarbrough WG, Myers JN. Sentinel lymph node biopsy accurately stages the regional lymph nodes for T1-T2 oral squamous cell carcinomas: results of a prospective multi-institutional trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(8):1395-400.

6 Referenced with permission from The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) for Head and Neck Cancers V.2.2013. © National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc 2013. All rights reserved. Accessed June 20, 2013. To view the most recent and complete version of the guideline, go online to www.nccn.org. NATIONAL COMPREHENSIVE CANCER NETWORK®, NCCN®, NCCN GUIDELINES®, and all other NCCN Content are trademarks owned by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc.

7 Balaker AE, Abemayor E, Elashoff D, St. John MA. Cancer of unknown primary: does treatment modality make a difference? Laryngoscope.2012;122(6):1279-82. doi: 10.1002/lary.22424. Epub 2012 Apr 26.